An experimental evaluation of the radiation doses in intraoral radiography
Objectives: High doses of ionizing radiation clearly produce deleterious consequences in humans; however at very low radiation doses the situation is less clear. In industrialized countries, dental radio diagnosis represents more than the half of the radiological acts, but a small part of x-ray exposure owing to the small quantity of x-rays delivered by each act. In this context, radiation protection requires the adoption of the precautionary principles in order to avoid workers’ exposition.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the workers’ doses and risks for intraoral dental radiography in the hospital dental radiology department.
Methods: Three boxes equipped by 3 dental units radiographies were available in the dental radiology department. Each unit had a round beam shaping cone with 6 cm diameter at the beam exit point, a focus to surface distance of 20 cm, operated at a nominal voltage of 63 kV and had a total filtration of 2 mm Al equivalent. We used NRF30 electronic dosimeters from Fuji Electric Corp of America to measure and display the radiation dose in real time delivered from the intra oral unit radiography. The measurements were made by calculating the x-ray primary beam width at different distances with a total amount of 100 exposures for each distance. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2013 and SPSS 21.0 Software.
Results: This study showed lower values’ dose irradiation even with a direct contact at the cone extremity (120 µSv/exposure). Increasing each time the distance from the source, the dose decreased with a loss of 68.57% at a distance of 30 cm, 84.41% at 60 cm, 96.45% at 120cm and 99.51% at 300cm.
No dose irradiation was recorded when the x-ray beam was focused and the dosimeters were placed at the beam extremity and behind the shielding.
Conclusions: The intra oral x-ray beam was focused; the level of dose irradiation was very low. Nonetheless, Workers should remain informed about safety updates and availability of new equipments and techniques that would further decrease their exposure.