Can Bioactive Materials be a Good Choice to Use with Dental Restorative Materials?
Objectives: The efforts to develop ideal materials with better properties continue at a rapid pace. The key strategy is to restore the damaged tooth structure and to promote remineralization by means of a biomimetic approach. The aim of the present topic is to highlight the translational research, whereby bioactive materials have been used by our group for dental applications.
Methods: A novel way was used to deposit nano-hydroxyapatite on E-glass fibers. The obtained bioactive E-glass fibers were used as reinforcing agents to synthesize experimental restorative materials. In-vitro bioactivity up to 40 days and for up to 6 months interfacial adhesion bond strength with tooth structure was assessed periodically. The cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT Assay. The 3D micro-CT analysis was used to evaluate void volumes and fatigue testing was done to find the strength of orthodontic retainers. Bioactive glass has been used in injectable form as an Endodontic sealer and coating material on orthodontic brackets. The bond strength was evaluated.
Results: The newly-formed apatite layer on experimental composites and thickness was increased with the increase in the concentration of bioactive fibers. With time and concentration, the bond strength of composites was increased and new apatite formed at the tooth-composite interface. MTT assay evaluation demonstrated no cytotoxic effect and in parallel supported their viability in all experimental groups at each interval. Voids were reduced with time by using experimental composites and fatigue behavior was in comparison with commercially available glass-fiber orthodontic retainers. Bioactive glass sealers showed attachment with root dentin and release of calcium, phosphate, and silica ions were found. Bioactive glass helped in the remineralization of the tooth surface.
Conclusions: The utilization of bioactive materials for tooth restorations can promote remineralization and a durable seal of the tooth–material interface. However, there are many factors that need to be considered before utilizing or incorporating bioactive materials in the resin matrix system.