Oral health-related quality of life among 11-12-year-old children in Lahore, Pakistan
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and condition-specific impacts among 11-12-year-old children in Pakistan.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1161, 11-12-year-old children in Lahore, Pakistan. A validated Urdu Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (U-Child-OIDP) index was answered by children in class room setting. Oral examinations were conducted by a calibrated dentist. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 26.0 software to calculate the prevalence, extent and intensity of oral impacts. Moreover, the condition-specific impacts for each of the eight performances were also reported.
Results: The prevalence of oral impacts in the children’s daily performances in the last three months was 68.6% (mean OIDP score = 19.88, SD = 15.85). The performance with the most impact was eating (50.2%), followed by cleaning teeth (43.0%) and smiling (35.6%). The performance with the least impact was speaking (14.5%). Likewise, the most intense effect was observed on smiling (33.7%) and socializing (29.4%) while the least intense effect was on speaking (17.2%). Of the total 797 children who suffered from oral impacts, majority reported toothache (70.4%) and malaligned teeth (35.4%) as the main causes of all impacts. The most affected performance, i.e., eating was caused by toothache, fractured and sensitive teeth. Likewise, the condition-specific impacts for cleaning teeth were toothache and bleeding gums. For impact on smiling and socializing, bad breath, malaligned teeth and colour of teeth were the main causes. Less than half of the children (46.5%) reported having four performances with impact. Among oral diseases, dental caries (46.3%) was the most prevalent. Contrarily, the least prevalent oral problem was cleft lip and palate (1.8%).
Conclusions: Children in Pakistan suffered significantly from high oral impacts and poor OHRQoL. Efforts to improve the OHRQoL of the children should concentrate on oral health promotion programmes and prioritizing treatment to children with oral impacts and poor quality of life.