Prevalence of TMDs, their relationships with orthodontic anomalies in Hungary
Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence throughout Hungary of pathological symptoms of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), vertical orthodontic anomalies, and to investigate interrelationships between these conditions. Methods: The 4604 probands were selected randomly from individuals attending compulsory lung screening examinations and were divided into different groups aged ≤19, 20-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years. All participants were examined by dentists using the 1997 WHO criteria. TMJ symptoms and vertical orthodontic anomalies were analyzed by age, gender, and geographic distribution. Results: Clinical signs of TMJ functional problems were found in 41% of examined subjects, mostly in individuals aged 35-44 years. The most frequently recorded signs were deviation and/or deflection of the mandible, observed in 53% of the population, and sound in the TMJ, observed in 43.7% of subjects. The frequency of clicking or crepitation of the joint was significantly higher among women than men (p<0.05). The TMD rate was highest in southwestern Hungary and lowest in central western Hungary, and significant regional differences in deviation/deflection were evident. Among vertical orthodontic anomalies, deep bite was most frequent in southwestern Hungary, and open bite was most common in southern Hungary. Deep bite was more frequent in men than in women and showed the highest incidence in individuals aged 35-44 years. Except in the youngest and the two oldest age groups, co-occurrence of deep bite and pain, and of deep bite and noise in the TMJ, were significantly correlated. Conclusion: The prevalence of TMD signs and symptoms was higher in individuals aged 35-44 years than in other age groups, and was greater in women than in men. Vertical orthodontic anomalies may be significant in TMD patients, especially when joint noise is observed.