A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LINGUAL CANAL AND THE LINGUAL FORAMEN IN CONE BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.
OBJECTIVE: Determine through images of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) the frequency and anatomical varieties of the lingual canal and lingual foramens that provide irrigation on the internal surface of the mandibular symphysis.
METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study of a non-probabilistic sample for the convenience of CBCT digital images of full lower jaw in 165 patients (68% women and 32% men, average age 51 ± 17 years) that were treated in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (FOUBA). The images were edited in the sagittal section and recorded: 1. Number of accessory canals, 2. Presence of anastomosis and 3. Location of accessory foramens. The prevalence and frequency distribution was established for each variable (%, 95% CI). The frequency distribution was analyzed using the proportions comparison test (p <0.05).
RESULTS: The prevalence of accessory canals was 55.1%, 54.1-56.1%, being significantly higher than their absence (z = 5.1). In relation to the number of accessory canals, the following order relationship was observed: 0 (44.8%, 37.3-52.4%)> 1 (42.4%, 37.0-47.8%)> 2 (12.1%, 7.1-17.1%)> 3 (0.61%, 0.1-1.2%); resulting significantly higher (z = 3.8) for 0 and 1 accessory canal, and for 1, 2 and 3 together vs 0 canal (z = 5.1). The prevalence of anastomosis was 39.6%, 29.6-49.6%; and it was significantly lower (z = 2.3) than its absence (60.4%, 50.4-70.4%). The distribution of the location of the accessory foramens was: vestibular 0%; basal 1.1%, 0.1-2.1%; vestibular and lingual 4.4%, 2.4-6.4%; lingual 94.5%, 94.0-95.0%; being significantly greater (z = 9.2) the frequency of their lingual location. No significant differences were found in relation to the sex variable.
CONCLUSION: The high frequency of occurrence of the lingual canal and associated foramens would indicate the presence of a vascular plexus in the region of the lingual face of the mandibular symphysis of great clinical relevance, which should be taken into account in order to avoid bleeding from the mouth floor in surgical procedures.