Calculus Removal of Various Ultrasonic Driven Devices with Universal Tips
Objectives: The present in vitro-study aimed to investigate the cleaning effectiveness of different ultrasonic power generating devices with their respective universal instruments as well as tips of other manufacturers. Methods: The marginal areas and roots of 70 human molars were covered with artificial calculus. Then 14 groups (n=5) were formed. Teeth of each group were mounted into silicone forming a line. The simulation of periodontal pockets allowed the blind instrumentation of the tooth surfaces up to the apical third of the roots. The cleaning was performed using the following devices and instruments within 5 min: MiniMaster/PS (A), Piezon Master (PM) 400 with PS (B), HuFriedy-UE100 (C), SDM-P1 (D), Woodpecker-P3 (E) and American Eagle-ITPS (F), PM700 with PS (G) and HuFriedy-UE100 (H), CavitronJet/Dentsply FSI 10S (I), Symmetrie IQ3000/Hu-Friedy US100 (J), Perio Scan/Sirona-PE1 (K), Varios 750/NSK-P20 (L), P-Max/Acteon 10Z (M) and manual curettes for control (X). Afterwards the roots were photographed. The approximal (AP) and buccal/ oral (BO) areas that could be cleaned as well as those with remaining calculus were assessed computer assisted. Statistical analysis was carried out (one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni/Dunn correction, t-test, α=0.05). Results: Best cleaning effectiveness was found for PM700 with both tested tips (G 88±17%, H 93±5%). G and H were significantly superior compared to A,C,F,L,M at AP and to A,F,L at BO as well as H with B-AP and B,K-AP (p<0.0003). I (83±13%), E (79±17%), J (78±11%) and X (72±28%) revealed better results than A,B,C,D,K,M (56-71%) and F (50±23%) or L (39±15%). Results of L were significantly lower than G,H,I,J,X-AP and C,D,E,G,H,I-BO, also of F than G,H,I-AP and E,G,H,I,J-BO. Instruments cleaned BO better than AP with C,E,H,J and M (p<0.05). Conclusions: Efficiency of calculus removal from molar roots differed up to 100% for different ultrasonic driven devices with regard to the universal tips.