Oral Health Status of Hungarian Smoking Patients
Objectives: Objective was to assess the oral health status of smoking patients from different agegroups and different socio-economic backgrounds. Number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF-T), periodontal probing depth (PPD), Gingival bleeding index (GI) in the two genders
Methods: 818 patients (age:18-92 years, 356 male, 462 female, selected according to the current official Hungarian age and residence distribution scheme) have been involved into the investigation. A complete oral examination was carried out, including dental (DMF-T), periodontal (periodontal probing depth,PPD and the maximum CPI-score) status, plaque-index(Löe-Silness,PI) and gingival bleeding index (Ainamo-Bay,GBI). Obtained data were statistically analyzed by the χ2 and the Student's t-test at a significance level of p<0.05.
Results: According to the data, 33.9% (45% of the men and 27% of the women) of the examined persons were smokers. An increased plaque retention (PI non-smoking women: 1.09 ± 0.84, smoking women: 1.53 ± 1.09. (p < 0.05); non-smoking men:1.18 ± 0.39, smoking men:1.65 ± 0.32(p< 0.05) and a significantly worse periodontal status (PPD non-smoking women: 2.22 ± 0.72, smoking women: 2.68±0.92(p < 0.05); non-smoking men:2.22 ± 0.31, smoking men:2.69 ± 0.22(p< 0.05) could be detected in smokers, but none of the other oral parameters showed to be significantly different in the genders between the smoking and the non-smoking groups. There was no significant difference in the DMF-T between the same age groups between smokers and non-smokers.
Conclusions: As well as in other populations, smoking might cause a significant destruction in the periodontal status of the Hungarian population but authors could not prove the influence of smoking on the gingival bleeding and on the cariological status.